In 2017 the United Nations recognized in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Report that progress towards sustainable development must happen at a faster rate if we aim to meet the global goals of ending poverty, with strategies addressing economic growth, education, health, social protection, and job opportunities, while tackling climate change and environmental protection. The contribution of tropical nations to the SDGs pass necessarily through the development of sustainable mechanisms to minimize the negative impacts of land use and land cover change (LULCC). LULCC is perhaps the most complex problem for these nations to resolve. Together with deforestation, wildfires, caused by the interaction of social and climate systems are currently a major driver of reduction of Amazonian carbon stocks and biodiversity, as well as an important threat to the well-being of the ~25 million Amazonian inhabitants. Most Earth System Models predict increasing occurrence and intensity of droughts in the Amazon during the 21st century. Based on these estimates, we anticipate that future climate-land cover arrangement can enhance the direct negative impacts of wildfires on ecosystems services, by degrading forests and altering carbon and water cycles and impacting biodiversity and human well-being. We therefore expect a collapse of the resilience of Amazonian ecosystems, and a consequent loss of their capacity to fully provide ecosystem services, with an increased risk of economic and human health failure. These fire-related socio-environmental disasters were particularly critical in the Amazonian states of Madre de Dios (Peru), Acre (Brazil) and Pando (Bolivia), known as MAP, the focal region of our proposal. Minimizing the impacts of these potentially ascending socio-environmental transbordering problems in Amazonia is the first step for adapting to a changing climate in the region.
Considering that future fire occurrence is a major threat to ecosystems, its inhabitants, and international commitments of Amazonian countries for achieving sustainable futures and reducing CO2 emissions, this project aims to: 1) develop a comprehensive understanding of current and future fire probability as well as quantifying fire impacts in the Amazon basin; 2) produce a diagnostic and identify challenges and bottlenecks of operational and community-based strategies of fire monitoring and prevention routines for wildfire risk management in the MAP region; 3) contribute towards the increase of risk awareness and capacity/resilience of populations; and 4) influence conservation strategies and policies at the basin-wide and MAP region, by standardizing the terminology among actors, identifying actors of change and streams of information flow for policy changing and providing technical reports for governments in the Amazon region.
The four outcomes are interlinked and aim to strengthen the science-police-citizen interface. The proposed transdisciplinary aims and consequent production of results will provide the first comprehensive benchmark for interpreting impacts and proposing plausible solutions to mitigate Amazonian wildfires. Information generated during this project will not only support local populations improving human well-being, but also subsidize nations with critical information for risk-informed decision making, complying with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. Moreover, our project will contribute to efforts set at the 2015 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change –Convention of the Parties 21 (CoP21) that called nations to combating climate change and adapting to its impacts. Signatory countries, including MAP countries, are required to present emission reduction plans named “Nationally Determined Contributions” (NDCs), for which our project can provide critical information. Results from this proposal will be critical for policymakers to strengthen the efforts of effectively limiting carbon emissions from tropical forest fires in the years ahead. This project, therefore, brings key information for nations to prepare for urgent actions aiming to mitigate the potential increase of fire emissions in response to the intensification of droughts in tropical ecosystems.
"Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research nor any of its sponsors."
Liana O. Anderson is the Principal Investigator of this project. She is passionate about the Amazon rainforest and its people. Her research interests encompass fires, land use and land cover dynamics, extreme climatic events and the risks and impacts of these processes and its inter-relationships. In this project, Liana has the aspiration for building a solid network of scientists, stakeholders and communities, which together will develop the knowledge for decreasing the risks of wildfires and its impacts in Amazonia. For more info: https://www.liana-anderson.org/
João dos Reis is a Ph.D. in Remote Sensing from National Institute for Space Research, Brazil. Graduated in Geography and Master’s degree in Environment and Water Resources. Has experience in Geosciences, focusing on Physical Geography, also acting on the following subjects: geotechnology, remote sensing, monitoring systems, Python and R programming, natural disasters, fires and floods. Currently, João works with the integration of fire pixels with rural properties areas in a warning system to subsidize planning and decision making for mitigating wildfires in Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. In the MAP-FIRE project, he is part of the Working Package 2, responsible for the warning system of fire risk in the situation room, besides the discussion with scientists, stakeholders, and communities the potential and limitation of the monitoring system.
Galia Selaya is an ecologist scientist with a PhD in Plant Ecology and Biodiversity from Utrecht University and a MSc in Agricultural Ecology from Wageningen University. She explores anthropogenic impacts on vegetation dynamics, species functioning and carbon fluxes in the tropics and designs participatory methods to engage people in sustainable landscape planning and forest conservation initiatives. She promotes scientific research outcomes as a foundation of a shared conservation agenda in the multi-stakeholders, social heterogeneity, and biophysical complexity of the transboundary Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) region in the Amazonia and in the Chiquitano dry forest of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. She is affiliated to Herencia NGO in Bolivia.
Victor Marchezini is a researcher at Cemaden/MCTIC and professor at the Doctorate Program on Earth System Science at the National Institute for Space Research (PGCST/INPE), Brazil. His main research interests include the sociology of disasters and climate change. In this project, Victor will work on the analysis of wildfire risk management and community-based strategies, and on the development of capacity building methods.
Izaias Brasil da Silva has a degree in Biology and Master's degree in Ecology from the Federal University of Acre, located in Brazil. He has experience in Systematic Botany, Forest Inventory, Arqueology, and he works with rural communities in the Amazon rainforest. Izaias currently works with Forest Inventory and is plannig community development in Acre, Brazil. Izaias has been appointed to work as a MAP-Fire Research Assistant for Coordinating the field inventories and data analysis.
Sonaira Souza da Silva is a professor at the Federal University of Acre, Campus Cruzeiro do Sul, and is a member of the Laboratório de Geoprocessamento Aplicado ao Meio Ambiente, UFAC #facebook <@labgamaufac>. Sonaira is interested on wildfires spatio-temporal patterns and its impacts on southwestern Amazonia. She is the PI of the projectAcre Queimadas, funded by the CNPq-Prevfogo/Ibama n.º 33/2018.
Luiz Aragãohas a background in Environmental Sciences from the State University of North Fluminense in Brazil with a PhD in Remote Sensing from the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (2004). Dr Aragão was a visiting student at the University of Edinburgh, UK (2003) and a Postdoc at the University of Oxford, UK (2004-2008). He is currently associated to the University of Exeter, UK as a Senior Lecturer and is a full-time Scientist at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). He is an expert in tropical ecosystems and environmental sciences using Remote Sensing and his research focus on: carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems, climate and environmental change, ecosystem ecology and remote sensing of forest disturbances, including deforestation and fires.
Irving Foster Brown holds a Ph.D. in geochemistry from Northwestern University. His work revolves around the dynamics of land use and forestry, education and management of natural resources, and global change. He is a Senior Scientist at the Woods Hole Research Center and a researcher at the Botanical Park and Zoo at the Federal University of Acre. He is the current science coordinator of MAP (Madre-de-dios-Peru, Acre-Brazil, and Pando-Bolivia) of the Woods Hole Research Center and the Federal University of Acre, whose work in sustainable development of the tri-national frontier is widely recognized.
Ana Carolina Pessôa holds a degree in Biological Sciences – Ecology from Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). She was an exchange student at University of Montana – USA through the Brazilian program ‘Science Without Borders’. She earned her Master’s degree in Remote Sensing from National Institute for Space Research (INPE) in 2016. From 2016 to 2017, Ana worked as a research assistant on the project ‘Tropical Deforestation and Economic Development’ (Research project – KLIMAFORSK, Norwegian Research Council – Project No: 230860/F10). In 2018, Ana started her PhD under Liana´s supervision in the Remote Sensing Department, INPE. She is one of the PhD students on MAP-Fire project, and her research will contribute on the analysis about the effectiveness of environmental policies in Brazil with implication for fire occurrence.
Wesley Campanharo is a Forestry Engineer from the University of Espírito Santo (UFES), specialist in Agroecology from the Federal Institute of Espírito Santo (IFES) and Master in Remote Sensing and Management of Hydrographic Basins by UFES. He is currentçy doing his PhD at INPE, supervised by Liana. He is interest in quantifying the socio-economic losses caused by wildfires. Here is a link of his most recent work: https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/11/7/764
Cândida Leite has Bachelor in Geography from the State University of Feira de Santana (2019), CAPES scholarship holder in the Postgraduate Program in Remote Sensing at the National Institute of Space Research, with a study aimed at modeling susceptibility to the occurrence of fires in the region MAP region (Madre de Diós - Peru, Pando - Bolivia and Acre – Brazil) under the supervision of Liana. Cândida has research interests in the area of environmental analysis with emphasis on Remote Sensing and Georeferenced Information Systems. In the MAP-Fire project, she will contribute with the understanding of fire exposure and probability in the MAP region.
Dr Vera Reis holds a Ph.D. Environmental Sciences, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Since 2004, she has been involved with Environmental Policy and Management in Acre state. As a Consultant at the Acre State Secretary of Environmental Management – SEMA (2007-2011), Technical Director of the Institute of Climate Change (IMC) of the State of Acre (2015-2018) and now as the Executive Director of SEMA, Vera has played a key role for the sustainable development of the state, through concrete actions in improving the state environmental monitoring systems and attracting scientists to the state in order to facilitate the technical knowledge to be rapidly incorporated for guiding practical decisions and policies.